Three kinds of activity easily integrate into witing-intensive courses. First are the ones activities which focus only regarding the CONTENT, such as for example lectures and discussions of texts. Second are activities related solely to WRITING as separate through the content concerns of this course. Grammar drills or sentence combining exercises fall into this category, but so would lecturing on writing in general or examining types of good writing without reference to the information. Third are activities which teach BOTH WRITING AND CONTENT. Peer critiquing, journal writing, and group brainstorming teach both writing and content as does examining model essays which are chosen for both the quality of this writing additionally the value of this content. The following advice are meant to show how writing may be taught not merely as a mechanical skill (through sentence and paragraph modeling), nor merely while the display of data (by concentrating solely on content), but as a generative intellectual activity in its own right. They’ve been based on three premises:
that students can learn a deal that is great themselves as writers by getting more careful readers;
that astute readers attend to the structure associated with the text in order to find that analyzing the writer’s choices at specific junctures provides them with a surer, more grasp that is detailed of;
that students will give their writing more focus and direction by thinking about details as parts of a complete, whether that whole be a sentence, paragraph, or chapter.
Thus, awareness of a discipline’s language, methodology, formal conventions, and means of creating context–as these are illustrated in texts, lectures, and student papers–is an way that is effective of writing.
Summary and Analysis Exercises
A) Have students write a 500-word summary of approximately 2000 words of text; then a 50-word summary; then a sentence summary that is single. Compare results for inclusivity, accuracy, emphasis, and nuance.
B) Analyze a text section or chapter. How is it constructed? What gets the author done to make the right parts add up to an argument?
C) Analyze a particularly complex paragraph from a text. How is it come up with? What gives it unity? What role does it play into the chapter that is entire element of text?
Organizational Pattern Work
A) Scramble a paragraph and inquire students: 1) to place it together; 2) to comment on the mental processes involved into the restoration, the decisions about continuity that they had to help make according to their feeling of the author’s thinking.
B) Have students find various kinds sentences in a text, and explain exactly, into the terms and spirit regarding the text, what these sentences are intended to do: juxtapose, equate, polarize, rank, distinguish, make exceptions, concede, contrast. Often, needless to say, sentences can do two or more of the things at the same time.
C) Have students examine an author’s punctuation and explain, again in regards to the argument, why, say, a semicolon was used.
D) Have students outline as a method of analyzing structure and talk about the choices a writer makes and exactly how these choices donate to achieving the writer’s purpose.
Formulation of Questions and Acceptability of Evidence
A) What can be treated as known? What is acceptable means of ruling cases in or out?
B) Discuss how evidence is tested against an hypothesis, and just how hypotheses are modified. (How models are produced and put on data; how observations develop into claims, etc.)
C) Examine cause and effect; condition and result; argumentative strategies, such as comparison-contrast, and agency (especially the utilization of verbs), as basic building blocks in definition and explanation.
Peer critiquing and discussion of student writing can be handled in a true number of different ways. The objective of such activities would be to have students read each other’s writing and develop their own faculties that are critical with them to greatly help one another improve their writing. Peer critiquing and discussion help students know how their own writing compares with this of these peers and helps them uncover the characteristics that distinguish successful writing. It is important to keep in mind that an instructor criticizing a text for a class is not peer critiquing; because of this will not provide the students practice in exercising their own skills that are critical. Below are a few models of various ways this can be handled, and now we encourage one to modify these to suit your purposes that are own.
A) The Small Groups Model–The class is divided in to three categories of five students each. Each week the student submits six copies of his / her paper, one when it comes to instructor and one for each member of her group. One hour per week is dedicated to group meetings for which some or all the papers into the group are discussed. Before this combined group meeting, students must read every one of the papers from their group and must write comments to be distributed to the other writers. Thus, weekly writing, reading and critiquing are an integral part of the course, and students develop skills through repeated practice that they could be not able to develop if only asked to critique on three to four occasions. Since the teacher is present with every group, he or she can lead the discussion to help students improve these critical skills.
B) The Pairs Model–Students can be paired off to see and comment on one another’s writing such that each learning student will get written comments in one other student plus the teacher. The teacher can, of course, go over the critical comments along with the paper to aid students develop both writing and critical skills. This method requires no special copying and need take very classroom time that is little. The teacher may decide to allow some time when it comes to pairs to talk about each other’s work, or this may be done outside of the class. The disadvantage with this method is the fact that trained teacher cannot guide the discussions and students are restricted to comments from only one of the peers.
C) Small Groups within Class–Many teachers break their classes into small groups (from 3 to 7 students) and invite class time for the groups to critique. The teacher can circulate among groups or sit in on an entire session with one group.
D) Critiques and Revision–Many teachers combine peer critiquing with required revisions to instruct students how to improve not only their mechanical skills, but in addition their thinking skills. Students might have comments that are critical their-teachers as well as from their peers to work with. Some teachers would like to have students revise a first draft with only comments from their peers and then revise a second time in line with the teacher’s comments.
E) Student Critiques–Students should be taught simple tips to critique each other’s work. Some direction while some teachers may leave the nature of the response up to the students, most try to give their students.
1) Standard Critique Form–This is a collection of questions or guidelines general adequate to be applicable to virtually any writing a learning student might do. The questions concentrate on such staples of rhetoric as audience, voice and purpose; in philosophy, they might guide the student to examine the logic or structure of an argument in English classes.
2) Assignment Critique Form–This is a couple of questions designed especially for a particular writing task. Such a questionnaire has the benefit of making students deal with the aspects that are special into the given task. If students use them repeatedly, however, they could become dependent they critique on them, never asking their own critical questions of the texts.
3) Descriptive Outline–Instead of providing questions to direct students, some teachers would like to teach their students to write a “descriptive outline.” The student reads the paper and stops to write after each and every section or paragraph, recording what she or he thought the section said and his or her responses or questions concerning it. The student writes his or her “summary comments” describing buy essays his or her reaction to the piece as a whole, raising questions about the writing, and perhaps making suggestions for further writing at the end.
Since writing in itself is of value, teachers do not need to grade all writing instance that is assignments–for, exploratory writing, and early drafts of more formal pieces. Teachers will make many comments on such writing to help students further their thinking but may watch for a far more finished, formal product before assigning grades.